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ͺԴͧ Ѱ Դ繪ह ô繪ԡѹ 6 Ǻ ô觧ҹѺԹⴹ ҡ Թⴹ Ѻо§ͧ 4 ͺҨ֡ҨҡԷ С¨ҡԷ ·ӧҹ繼Ѵǧѧ, ҨԷ зԷԾͧҡ͹ѹʹ㨡ͧ ç˹ҪԡزѰԹ.. 1997 ֧ .. 2004 ѤҪԡҼ᷹ɮѰԡ㹡͡駻 2000 誹С͡ ֧§㹡ѤҪԡزѰԡ 2003

ͺعþӤѭ㹡ûЪЪҸԻ觪ҵԻ 2004 зç˹ҪԡҹԵԺѭѵѰԹ ҡѺ͡ҪԡزѰԡ͹Ȩԡ¹ 2004 ¤ṹ§ 70%

ҧ÷˹ҷҤͧʷ 109 ͺ¡ͧ աäǺظ ¡ͧաŧԹͧѰ ҸҳҺ ͡ҡ 㹪ǧ ѧ͹ûѹ͡ ѹ͡ҧ Ϳԡҧ繷ҧô Ҥͧʷ 110 һѨغѹ ҡ¡ͧաôҪҡҧ硷͹ԡ ҡ¹ŧš͹ á͡´ظ ôŷüҹ֡Ѱ

 ͡駻иҹҸԺѰԡ

ͺʹ͵繵᷹äõ 㹡͡иҹҸԺѰԡ 2008 ҧ§ͪԧ˹觵᷹ä ͹Ҿѹ 2007 ͺӤѭͧصʧѡ ѧҹ СûСѹآҾ 繻ѡ㹡§ԧµ˹觵᷹ä駹 ҡ Ѻҡͧä¹ŧ СԡѹǴ ѧҡ͡ŧѹ 3 Զع¹ 2551 㹷شͺ դṹм᷹˹͡ҹҧ Թѹ ͺҨ֧СȪª 繪ǼǴӤá繵᷹äõ Ҫԧ˹觻иҹҸԺ ҹѺ´

 Եǹ

ʡѺ úԹѹ (Michelle Robinson) ˭ԧǼǴ͹ѹ辺͡ѹҧ¹· 㹻 .. 1992 駤պص 2 9 Ǻ Ҫ 6 Ǻ

ҡ仫 Ѥ ͺ, ͧǢͧ ѴеҢͧǡҤ ͹ ѹ, ʵ ѹ ·Ѱ ͵鹻 1970

 

Ե硨֧·ӧҹ

ͺ Դѹ 4 ԧҤ .. 1961 ͧ Ѱ 繺صâͧºҡ ͺ ǨѧѴ ह йҧ͹ ѹ ͧԪԷ Ѱ᤹ ·駤辺ѡѹ֡Է·ҹ 觾ͧ֡͢㹰ҹйѡ¹ҧҵ ҷͧ¡ѹͺ§ 2 ѧҡ鹡ҢҴҡѹ ѧҡ ѹ ͧͺҡ觧ҹѺ ҤͺҹԴͧ㹻Թⴹͻ 1967 ͺ¹ç¹㹷ͧ蹢ͧاҡз 10 Ǻ ͺҨ֧¡ѺٺҹԴѺͺǢͧ¹ç¹ٹǵô 5 稡֡㹻 1979 ѧҡʡ ͺҡ¹ͷ͹Է͡ഹ (Occidental College) 2 ҡ鹨֧¹Է ҹ ҢѰʵ ѹҧ

ͺ稡֡дѺԭҵҡԷ㹻 1983 ҷӧҹ㹺ѷáԨҧСԨҸóª觹 ͹Ԥ㹻 1985 Ѻҹ繼Ѵê˹ ҡ Ҩ֧¹ʹҹ·Է㹻 1988 ͺ稡֡дѺԭ͡ҡԷ㹻 1991 ҡҡ¡Ѻ仪Ԥŧ¹Է͡¹˹ѧá Dreams from My Father վá㹻 1995

ǧ 1993 2002 ͺҷӧҹ繼㹤Сúáͧع觪Ե ͧ÷¨ѴԹعѺЪҪЪ١Ѵºº㹪Ԥ 㹻 1999 ˹㹤Сúô¤ͧ͢

ҡѺҹ͹͡ҷԷ¡ ԷªԤ ͺ͹ԪѰ٭ 12 繼 4 (1992-1996) 繼ʶ֧ 8 (1996-2004)

ͺ ҪԡҢͧ촺ͧþѹԵҸó㹻 1992 ͡仡͹ ҢͧҨ繼ӹ¡˭ẺҢͧͧþѹԵҸó觪Ԥ㹵鹻 1993 ѧҪԡͧ촺· ͧع觪Ԥ С÷¤ԷԾͧ顮觪Ԥ ٹҧ෤͹ҧ ٹ٨λ 繵

 ҪԡҹԵԺѭѵѰԹ, 1997-2004

ͺѺ͡ҪԡزѰԹ㹻 1996 ᷹˹觢ͧزҪԡ ԫ ҡࢵͧ 13 Ѻ͡ ͺҡѺʹѺʹعҡʹѺʹعäͧ 2 ä˭աûٻ¨¸آҾ ʹѺʹعºèͧôԵѺçҹ èͧûٻѧʧ кԨҤԹͧ͡ع§

ͺѺ͡ҪԡزѰԹա㹻 1998 ա˹㹻 2002 ǹ㹻 2000 ͡Ẻͪԧ˹ҪԡҼ᷹ɮѰԡҵ ͺ Ѫ Ңͧ˹觤Ҵ¤ṹ§ 2 1

͹Ҥ 2003 ͺ繻иҹСúԡآҾҪԡزѰԹ 觵͹ äõ Ǣ繼ӻա ѧҡͧͧҹѺ ҧ͡駷㹻 2004 زҪԡѰԡҹ ᷹ǨôԵѺͺҡ㹡óշ繼աûٻ¡ûêԵ ͺҨ֧͡ҡҪԡزѰԹ͹Ȩԡ¹ 2004 §Ѻ͡ҪԡزѰԡ з㹻 2004 ҡѺ͡زҪԡͧѰԡ

 §ͪԧ˹Ҫԡز 2004

ҧ 2002 ͺԴ֧ͧҪԡزѰԡ ѧҡԴ ͡ʹ ѡͧʹǧáͧҹҹСȶ͹ ͺҨ֧Сʹ͵Ҫԧ˹͹Ҥ 2003  ѧҡ ԵŴ ç˹觤͹ҡäԾѺԡѹ Ф ͹ ʹյزҪԡҡäõѴԹ觢ѹͪԧ˹㹤駹 繡Դ͡ʡҧѺѤèҡ駾äõоäԾѺԡѹ§ͪԧ˹觹ռѤ 15 ʹ͵Ҫԧ˹觢ͧͺѺçʹѺʹعҡ͡ʹҧҡ§ »ЪѹҾѡɳͧͺ ͨҡ Ŵ ͪԧѹ ¡ͧԤҵ ʹѺͧҡ١Ǣͧ ͹ ѡͧӤѭͧԡʹյزҪԡѰԡ ᷹Ѱҹ ͺѺṹ§֧ 52 㹡͡͹չҤ 2004 ѧӤ觨ҡäõ¡ѹ֧ͧ 29 · з繵᷹ͧäõͪԧµ˹ѹçõѰԹ觹

觤ӤѭͧͺҤ ѹ 骹С͡ẺըҡäվѺԡѹ Сȶ͹Ǩҡ觢ѹ͹Զع¹ 2004

͹áҤ 2004 ͺعþӤѭ㹡ûЪäõдѺҵԻШӻ 2004 ͧʵѹ ѰʫҪ૵ ͺҶ֧ʺóͧ繵Ңͧҹʺóʧš駷 2㹰ҹзüҹ֡ лªͧ New Deal's FHA ʹҧ·è (G.I. Bill) ҡǶ֧ͧ¹ŧԷԾɷҧɰԨѧͧѰѰԡ 駤Ӷ֧úçҹ㹪ǧʧѡͧиҹҸԺը Ѻ ت 㹻˹ҷͧԡҷ֧յͷâͧ ͺ¡ҧѵʵԡ ԾҡԨóԷ͡駡عçҧ˹ѡ ͧԡѹѹҽѡѤշҧҡ·ҧ¸ عþ "ȹԡչѺԡ͹ѡ ͻѰԡ" ("There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America.) عþǹ ӹѡ˭ա价 ʶҹҾѡɳҧͧͧҴբҡ Ѻҧ 㹡͡ҪԡزѰԡҤ駹

͹ԧҤ .. 2004 ա֧ 3 ͹ж֧ѹ͡ ѹ 繵᷹ҡäԾѺԡѹ㹡êԧ˹ҪԡزѰԹ ᷹ ѹ ͡仡͹˹ҹ ʹպҹѰŹ ҡ·¹ҹѰԹ͡͡駤駹 ش 㹡͡駷͹Ȩԡ¹ .. 2004 ͺѺṹ§֧ 70 зṹ§§ 27 ҹ ªѹ鹢ͧͺҤ駹繪ªФ˭㹻ѵʵ͡駢ͧѰԹ·

 Ҫԡز ᷹ѰԹ

ͺѺ觵Ҫԡزѹ 4 Ҥ .. 2005 ͧҡ繤áҷӧҹͪԧѹ Ҩ֧駤з֡ҷդö٧Ҫ͡÷ӧҹ 觨ӹǹҪԡ㹤з֡ҢͧҹҡҷҪԡزҤͧͤ駷Ѻ˹觹á Ҩҧ շ ҫ ջʺóҧҹͧдѺҵ 30 ѧҨҧ ʹյ˹˹ҷͧиҹز觾äõ˹˹ҷͧա ͡ҡ鹡Ҩҧ ù 칺 ѡɰʵ, ٺԹ ʹյѡҡ˹˹ҷͧѰաзǧ 繼ӹ¡ý¹º ͺ ӴҹԷªСõ͵ҧæҧҾѹ ͹ⷹ Ť Ѻ ٫ҹ ë ʹյ˹ҷ»иҹҸԺդԹѹ 繷֡ҴҹºµҧȢͧҴ

ͧ͢ͺҵͧ֡㹻ѵʵҪԡزҢͧѰԡ ԡѹդ 5 㹻ѵʵҪԡزҢͧѰԡ 繤 3 Ҩҡ͡駢ͧЪҪ Ҫԡز§ǷҪԡͧ Congressional Black Caucus Ե CQ Weekly Ե÷繡ҧͧѰԡ¡ͧͺ "ѡЪҸԻ¼ѵ" ҡšǵṹ§Ҫԡزҷǻ㹻 2005-2007 йԵ National Journal ѴҪԡزҷ"դչҡش" ҡǵ㹻 2007 ͺҡѺ֡ʧԸաǨǵ µ˹ҡ觡ͧͧ͡ҧҧ"͹ѡ"Ѻ"չ" 繡觷١ͧ ШзԴ§㹼šǨ 觡ǵ͡çԧ㴹ѡ


 ҹԵԺѭѵ

ͺŧṹ繴¡Ѻҧ¹º¾ѧҹ 2005 ͧҡʹͧѺʹ㨢ͧ ͺѺ˹ҷӤѭ㹡üѡѹزҾѲҤʹµǪᴹСûٻ;¾ 㹻 2005 ʹѺʹع"ҧ¤ʹ¢ͧԡС;¾ҧº" ҧ ҪԡزѰ⫹ ҡäԾѺԡѹ شŧ "ҧ»ٻ;¾" 觼ҹ繪ͺҡЪز͹Ҥ .. 2006 Ѻ§ҧҡ㹷ЪҼ᷹ɮ ͹ѹ¹ 2006 ͺʹѺʹعҧ·Ǣͧ ҧ»ͧѹʹ çҧǢͧѺûͧѹоѲҤʹǪᴹѰԡ-硫[ иҹҸԺպتŧѺͧ¡ҧ©Ѻ繡·ռźѧѺ͹Ҥ 2006 ¡ҡ©Ѻ繡ǡⴴӤѭ㹡ûٻ;¾ᴹѰԡ

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